The most useful drush commands (Drupal 7)

Here I will try to maintain a drush cheat sheet with the list of drush commands I use most often. The full and short version of some commands are used interchangeably.

See information and status of the site

drush status

Clear the cache

drush cc all

Clear the cache, even if Drupal is broken

drush sql-query "DELETE FROM cache"

sql-query executes SQL queries in the database where Drupal is installed.

Download the last recommended release of 2 modules

drush dl module1 module2

Download a -dev version of a module

drush dl views-7.x-3.x --package-handler=git_drupalorg

Seems that adding --package-handler=git_drupalorg is not needed anymore.

Download the git HEAD version of a module

Short answer: drush does not do that.
Long answer: See

Enable a module

drush en name_of_module -y

-y skips the confirmation question. Some drush commands may miss the -y part, a workaround for this that always works is putting it before:

drush -y en name_of_module

If the module is missing and its name matches a project name, drush will automatically download the module from

Disable a module

drush dis name_of_module

Disable a module, even if Drupal is broken

drush sql-query "UPDATE system SET status = '0' WHERE name = 'module_name'"
drush sql-query "DELETE FROM cache_bootstrap WHERE cid = 'system_list'"


Uninstall a module

drush pm-uninstall module_name -y

See if a module is available

drush pm-list | grep module_name

See if a module is enabled

drush pm-list --status=enabled | grep module_name

See all contrib and custom modules that are enabled

drush pm-list --type=Module --no-core --status=enabled

Update a module

drush up module_name

Update Drupal

drush up drupal

Update all contrib modules and Drupal

drush up

Run update.php

drush updb

Send an e-mail

drush php-eval "print mail('', 'Subject', 'Message', 'From: [email protected]');"

Delete a field

drush field-delete fieldname

Delete an instance of a field

drush field-delete fieldname --bundle=article

Manually delete a field and all its data (not recommended)

drush sql-query "DELETE FROM field_config WHERE field_name = 'fieldname'"
drush sql-query "DELETE FROM field_config_instance WHERE field_name =' fieldname'"
drush sql-query "DROP TABLE field_data_field_fieldname"
drush sql-query "DROP TABLE field_revision_field_fieldname"

Set a password for a user

drush upwd --password="asdf" admin

Block a user

drush user-block joe

Log all users out

drush sql-query 'TRUNCATE TABLE sessions;'

Log out a specific user

drush sql-query 'DELETE FROM sessions WHERE uid = 2;'

Get a list of detaills for all users (name, user id, roles, email and status)

drush uinf $(drush sqlq "SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(name) FROM users")

Get a one-time login link for the Administrator user

drush uli

Run cron

drush cron

Run Ultimate Cron

drush cron-run

Set a variable

drush vset variable_name 'value'

Get the value of a variable

drush vget variable_name

See last logged events (watchdog)

drush ws

See logged events in real time

drush ws --tail

Run a php script with Drupal bootstrapped

drush scr script.php

Use --uri to specify the hostname. Use --root to specify the site directory (in cron, for example):

/usr/bin/drush --root=/var/www/drupal scr /var/www/drupal/sites/all/scripts/example.php >>/root/logs/scripts/example_log.txt 2>>/root/logs/scripts/example_errors.txt

Run custom code

drush eval "variable_set('foo', 'bar');"

Repopulate database tables used by menu functions

drush eval "menu_rebuild();"


Rescan all code in modules or includes directories, storing the location of each interface or class in the database

drush eval "registry_rebuild();"

Useful when moving installed modules. See
If it does not work because Drupal cannot bootstrap, do it with Registry Rebuild:

drush dl registry_rebuild
drush rr

Update a Feature with database changes

drush fu feature_name

Revert a Feature, update the database to match the code

drush fr feature_name

Revert all features

drush features-revert-all -y

Enable maintenance mode

drush vset -y maintenance_mode 1

Disable maintenance mode

drush vset -y maintenance_mode 0

Open a MySQL console logged in

drush sql-cli

Import a backup of the database

drush sql-drop; drush sql-cli < dump.sql

Import a compressed backup of the database

drush sql-drop; zcat dump.sql.gz | drush sql-cli

Export a backup of the database

drush sql-dump | gzip --stdout > $(date +\%Y-\%M-\%d-\%H-\%M-\%S).sql.gz

Remove all database tables (empty the database)

drush sql-drop

Useful before importing a database backup.

See all drush aliases

drush site-alias

Use an alias

drush @aliasname command

Flush image styles

drush image-flush all

Install Drupal

drush site-install

Generate random content (with Devel and Devel Generate modules)

sudo drush generate-content 20 --types=page

List available content types

drush php-eval "print_r(array_keys(node_type_get_types()));"


Delete all content of specific content types (with Devel and Devel Generate modules)

sudo drush generate-content 0 --kill --types=facebook,instagram,tweet

Alternatives modules are Migrate (drush migrate-wipe) and Delete all.

Delete a content type

drush php-eval "node_type_delete('job_posting');node_types_rebuild();menu_rebuild();"

Delete a node (e.g. node id 34)

drush php-eval "node_delete_multiple(array(34));"

Multiple nodes:

drush php-eval "node_delete_multiple(array(34, 35));"

Delete a node by path or URL (e.g. http://localhost/about-us)

drush sql-query "SELECT source FROM url_alias WHERE alias = 'about-us'"

(if there is a node with that path, you'll get a short url like node/123)

drush php-eval "node_delete_multiple(array(123));"

Create a boilerplate for a new module

drush mb my_module menu cron --write --name="My module"

See Module Builder.

Clear all webform submissions

drush php-eval '$nodes = node_load_multiple(array(), array("type" => "webform")); foreach ($nodes as $n) { print $n->nid . "\n"; }' | xargs -n1 drush -y webform-clear

Run sanitization operations (run only in non-production databases)

drush sql-sanitize

Note that this also deletes all webform submissions. You may implement hook_sql_sync_sanitize() in your custom modules to clean specific data.

Same as above, but also setting a default login password for all users

drush sql-sanitize --sanitize-password='newpassword'

Same as above, but also sanitizing all user emails

drush sql-sanitize --sanitize-password='newpassword' --sanitize-email

Clear all webform result submissions of node id 3

drush webform-clear 3

Delete all entityform submissions

drush php-eval "entity_delete_multiple('entityform', db_query('SELECT entityform_id FROM {entityform}')->fetchCol());"


Compare 2 Drupal databases with diff, skipping most cache tables and other unnecessary tables:

mysqldump  -uUSER -pPASSWORD DBNAME --skip-extended-insert --complete-insert --skip-opt --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_filter --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_menu --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_page --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_field --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_update --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_views_data --ignore-table=DBNAME.history --ignore-table=DBNAME.sessions --ignore-table=DBNAME.watchdog --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_admin_menu --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_block --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_form --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_libraries --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_metatag --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_views --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_bootstrap --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_features --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_image --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_panels --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_path --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_variable --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_eck --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_search_api_solr --ignore-table=DBNAME.cache_token --ignore-table=DBNAME.ctools_css_cache --ignore-table=DBNAME.ctools_object_cache > 1.sql

(repeat and save the output to 2.sql)

diff -u 1.sql 2.sql

Delete an alias for a node:

drush sql-query "delete from url_alias where source = 'node/48561'"

Delete an alias by path (e.g. /example):

drush sql-query "delete from url_alias where alias = 'example'"

Get corresponding (reverse) entity references. (That is, all entity ids that reference a specific entity inside an entityreference field)

drush sql-query "select entity_id, bundle from field_data_field_{entityreference_field_machine_name} where field_{entityreference_field_machine_name}_target_id = {entity_id}"

For example, if the field's machine name is "form_reference", and the reference is "node/141":

drush sql-query "select entity_id, bundle from field_data_field_form_reference where field_form_reference_target_id = 141"


A more general and exhaustive list can be found here:
See also